Archive for the ‘INO’ Category

types of NGOs

Posted: July 21, 2010 in INO
  1. INGO such as CARE & mercy corps
  2. BINGO (business-oriented international NGO) such as fashoda youth forum
  3. RINGO (religious international NGO) such as catholic relief services
  4. ENGO (environmental NGO) such as global 2000
  5. GONGO (government-operated NGO)
  6. QUANGO (quasi-autonomous NGO) such as international organization for standardization (ISO).

UN specialised agencies

Posted: July 19, 2010 in INO
  1. FAO = food & agriculture organization
  2. GATT = general agreement on tariffs & trade
  3. IAEA = international atomic energy agency
  4. ICAO = international civil aviation organisation
  5. IFAD = international fund for agricultural development
  6. IFC = international finance corporation
  7. ILO = international labor organisation
  8. IMF = international monetary fund
  9. IMO = international maritime organisation
  10. ITU = international telecommunication union
  11. UNCTAD = UN conference on trade & development
  12. UNDP = UN development programme
  13. UNEP = UN environmental programme
  14. UNESCO = UN educational, scientific & cultural organisation
  15. UNFPA = UN fund for population activitites
  16. UNHCR = UN high commissioner for refugee
  17. UNICEF = UN international children’s emergency fund
  18. UNIDO = UN industrial development organisation
  19. UPU = universal postal union
  20. WHO = world health organisation
  21. WIPO = world intellectual property organisation
  22. WMO = world meteorological organisation
  1. the decade of 1960-70 was declared as development decade by UNO.
  2. in the year 1961 UNO attempted to increase the income of developing countries with a growth rate of 5% p.a. during that development decade.
  3. a conference of developing countries was held at Cairo in 1962, which resolved to convene a world conference for this purpose.
  4. economic & social council of the UNO organized a world trade & development conference from march-june 1964.
  5. a world-wide international trade policy was determined in this conference.
  6. various issues related to extension of international trade of developing countries were also discussed in that conference.
  7. the conference was known as UNCTAD-I’.

i)                    at present, UNCTAD  has become a permanent organization for promoting international trade.

ii)                  Its HQs is situated at Geneva.

iii)                Usually, UNCTAD has its session after every 4 years.

iv)                 IMF has got the permanent representation in all its bodies.

v)                   This is the reason why IMF includes all UNCTAD proposals in its policies.

vi)                 UNCTAD recommendations are only suggestions & no country can be forced to accept them.

Membership of UNCTAD:

i)                    Any country can join or withdraw the UNCTAD membership since its membership is fully optional.

ii)                  The working of UNCTAD  is based on democratic principles.

iii)                Every member has only one voting right.

iv)                 For general disputes, simple majority is required among present members but 2/3rd majority is required for important issues.


  1. to determine policies & principles for international trade & economic development.
  2. to promote international, especially with a view to accelerating the economic development of underdeveloped countries.
  3. to propose the strategy for implementing pre-approved principles & policies.
  4. to provide a suitable platform for trade dialogues.
  5. to assist economic & social council of the UNO.
  1. it came into force in april 1988.
  2. it works as the insurance wing of the world bank.
  3. objectives of MIGA is to protect investments against losses resulting from non-commercial banks.
  4. investment protected include case/equity contributions, loans & certain forms of non-equity direct investments .
  5. investments are covered for 15 years or, in exceptional cases, for 20 years.
  6. no minimum investment is required to be eligible for insurance.
  7. MIGA acts in association with national investment insurance agencies & private insurers to co-insure/re-insure eligible investments.
  8. the president of world bank also acts as the chairman of the board of directors & president of MIGA.