Archive for the ‘2010_mains_papers’ Category

this is the Kannada compulsory paper for mains .

here is the question paper of Kannada compulsory paper Mains 2010.



Agriculture 2010 mains paper 1


  1. write short notes on the following about 150 words.15×4 = 60
  1. potential organic farming in north-eastern India
  2. harnessing synergy between water & nutrients for high crop productivity
  3. major constraints in rice-rice & rice-wheat cropping system in India
  4. scope & limitations of cultivation of sorghum & sugarcane


2. bring out the possible impact of climate change on Indian agriculture. What are the possible mitigation options? Comment on any national/international regulatory mechanisms in this regard. 25+25+10 = 60.


3.a. in the context of integrated farming system , describe feasible enterprise diversification for dry land areas with special reference to small landholdings. 30

b. what are the management strategies for tackling the major soil-related constraints in agricultural production? 30


4.a. differentiate between active & passive factors of soil formation. 15

b. comment on the use of remote sensing & geographic information system in agriculture planning. 15

c. comment on soil test based nutrient recommendations for crops & their adoption by farmers. 15

d. differentiate between green manuring & biofertilizers for crop production. 15


section b


5.wrtie short notes on the following about 150 words each.

a. minimizing run-off losses of irrigation water

b. management of industrial effluents in checking soil & water pollution.

c. role & importance of farm management under changing rural farm scenario

d. cooperative farming in the context of subdivision & fragmentation of land-holdings.

e. role of self-help groups in rural development.


6.a. discuss the status of unemployment disguised unemployment in Indian agriculture. 30

b. enumerate the major problems of Indian agricultural marketing. 30


7.a. despite existence of krishi vigyan kendas in most of the districts, it is argued that only selective technologies have gone to ultimate clients. Evaluate this argument & enumerate the constraints in dissemination of technologies. 20+10 = 30

b. describe the importance of crop insurance in minimizing risk in agriculture production. 20

c. comment on the methodology of socio-economic survey in India . 20


8.a. what are the various water conservation practices that can be used in rainfed agriculture? 20

b. bring out the geographic status of groundwater availability in India. 15

c. highlight the importance of farm planning & budgeting in resource allocation & cost minimization . 10

d. comment on the process of evaluation of extension programmes. 15


agriculture 2010 mains paper 2


  1. comment on the following in about 150 words each. 4×15 = 60

a.      various types of gene leakage & their detection.

b.      The success story of “juvenile hormone” in insect pest management .

c.      Various types of apomictic seedlings & their use in plant propagation.

d.      The physiological process mediated by phytochrome pigment.


2. answer the following about 200 words each.

a.      how do phytophagous insects select their host? Explain the role of plant chemicals in host selection. 10+10 =20

b.      how can the pest faunal complex be managed in paddy? 20

c.      describe in brief the preventive & curative methods for control of storage pests. 10+10 =20


3. answer to each of the following should be brief & to the point.

a.      discuss the types of self-incompatibility & their relevance in plant breeding. 15

b.      describe the methods of transfer of 2 or more characters to a single recurrent parent. 15

c.      in what situations are different recurrent selection methods used & compare their effectiveness . 15

d.      outline the mechanism of opening & closing of stomata with reference to K+ ion transport mechanism. 15


4. answer the following in 200 words each.

a.      bring out the extent & scope of rose cultivation in India with special reference to export. 20

b.      explain the present status of arid fruit culture in India. Describe major constraints in fruit productivity in arid regions. 20

c.      briefly describe the various popular designs of ornamental gardens. 10

d.      briefly describe the various methods of seed-testing for seed certification. 10


section b


5. answer the following in about 150 words each. 4×15 = 60

a.      what are the orthodox & recalcitrant seeds? What are the different phases associated with germination of orthodox seed.

b.      Bring out the diagnostic symptoms , pathogen, pre-disposing factors & management of late blight of potato.

c.      Describe the origin & production of aneuploids.

d.      What are the principles of preservation of fruits & vegetables? Briefly describe the method for preparing of gava jelly.


6. answer the following in about 200 words each.

a.      what are the synthetic pyrethroids? Explain their mode of action? 20.

b.      Differentiate stress from strain. Five an account of morphological adaptive changes in plants to survive drought situation. 4+16 = 20

c.      Define oxidative phosphorylation & photo-phosphorylation. Distinguish between non-cyclic & cyclic electron transport process of photosynthesis. 4+16 = 20


7. answer in about 200 words each. 3×20 = 60

a.      what are the different types of entomogenous virus? Describe in brief nuclear polyhydrosis virus & its merits & demerits in pest management?

b.      Discuss in brief the points to be considered for cost & return analysis in fruit cultivation.

c.      Define vinegar. Describe its classification & bring out the methods of its preparation.


8. write short notes on the following in about 150 words each. 4×15 = 60

a.      molecular markers & transgenics

b.      insecticidal poisoning , symptoms & treatment.

c.      The influence of various spectrums of light on root development, stem growth & the maturity of fruit in fruit plants.

d.      Temperature induced injuries in fruits & plants.

law mains 2010 paper 1 & 2

Posted: November 15, 2010 in 2010_mains_papers

Law mains 2010 paper 1


1. answer any 3 of the following in 200 words each: 20×3 = 60

a. the fragrance & color which is enshrined in article 141 of the constitution of India is destined to uphold the rule of law in the interest of justice & people of India. Do you agree? Give reasons.

b. whether right to vote is a fundamental or a statutory right? Justify your statement with the relevant case-law on this subject.

c. while certain of law is important in India, it cannot be at the cost of justice . critically examine this statement in the context of curative petition in India & also refer to relevant case-law.

d. the doctrine of separation of powers in its classical sense, which is functional rather than structural, cannot be applied in any modern government. Discuss.


2.a. new frontiers of criminal justice have been spelled out from article 21 of the constitution, which provides that no person shall be deprived of his right to life & personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. Discuss & refer to decided cases. 30

b. locus standi is necessary for challenging an administrative action through a writ petition. How it has been liberalized in case of public interest litigation? Comment on the statement that PIL is not PILL against all the ILLS. 30


3.a. critically examine the role of supreme court of India in the maintenance of minimum standards in public life & polity. Opine on how much of it is enforcement of the rule of law & how much of it is judicial activism. 30

b. in recent time the role of governor in the appointment & dismissal of chief minister has been impugned & it is said that the court has assumed the role of governor & the speaker . comment. Refer to recent cases where the supreme court has directed to take composite floor test & report to the court. 30


4.a. the power to destroy constitution is not included in the power to amend the constitution .

b. it is the religious teaching , not the teaching of religion which is prohibited under the constitution of India.

c. the doctrine of excessive delegation is a judicially tailored principle.


section b

5. answer any 3 of the following in 200 words each. 20×3 = 60

a. fundamentals of international law are passing through a serious crisis & this necessities its reconstruction. Do you agree this statement ? give reasons

b. what do you understand by the principle of continuity of state in the context of succession of government? Pinpoint the major areas to be addressed to improve upon the existing position relating to state succession rule & practice.

c. comment on the statement that WTO is the main organ for implementation of multilateral trade agreements & is the third economic pillar of the world wide trade & commerce.

d. a reservation, which purports to exclude or to modify the legal effects of certain provisions of the treaty in their application to that state, is accepted in practice if it is compatible with object & purpose of treaty . discuss the practice of different nations & opinion of ICJ regarding admissibility of reservations to the conventions .


6.a. the tradition definitions of international law with its restriction to the conduct of the state inter se, in the view of developments during the last six decades cannot stand as a comprehensive description of all the rules now acknowledged to form part of international law.

Elaborate with examples those developments which are not covered by the exclusive rules governing the conduct of states. 30

b. discuss with illustrations the law & the practice of various states in relation to non-recognition of governments. 30


7.a. normally the state are reluctant to resort to the international court of justice mainly due to political factor; the general conditions of international relations; the greater suitability of other tribunals; a flexibility of arbitration in comparison with a compulsory jurisdiction & difficulty in getting enforcement of the decisions of the court. However, the court has made a reasonable contribution in settling disputes.

Critically evaluate the working of the court specially in contentious cases. 30

b. how would you react to the statements that TRIPS agreement on the one hand is a historic act but on the other hand it failed to achieve the goals of improving trading powers & trade issues of the least developed countries? Comment. 30


8. write short notes on following.

a. exclusive economic zone

b. laws relating to aircraft hijacking

c. statelessness


law mains 2010 paper 2

1. answer any 3 of the following not exceed in 200 words . support your answer with help of legal provisions & decided cases: 20×3 = 60

a. distinguish common intention from abetment & criminal conspiracy.

b. right of private defence is available only against offences. Discuss.

c. defence of ‘volenti-non-fit-injuria’ is not available when the rescuer is injured in an act of rescuing. Discuss.

d. discuss the principle of res-ipsa-loquitur. Refer to recent cases.


2.a. in order to constitute a public nuisance there must be an act or an illegal omission , & it is not necessary that the act should be illegal. Explain the offence of public nuisance with the help of decided cases . 20


b. A & B were both security guards posted outside the home of senior army officer, Mr.X. they often used to exchange hot words with each other in context to the other. On the day of holi festival both of them had a verbal exchange due to fact that both wanted to go to home early for festival , that led to altercation between the two, both of them instantaneously aimed their revolvers at each other respectively. C who was also on duty with them intervened & pacified both of them. Both lowered their weapons respectively . the moment B noted that A has lowered his revolver , he immediately fired at A & killed them. On being tried B was awarded death sentence. However, on appeal the high court acquitted B on the plea of self-defence. The state intends to go in for appeal in the supreme court against the decision of the high court . advice in the light of the case law on the subject. 20

c. discuss the law relating to criminal intimidation . refer to case law. In what way is extortion different from criminal intimidation? 10+10 = 20


3.a. what test has the supreme court prescribed to understand the rarest of the rare cases theory while inflicting capital punishment? Can one argue that capital punishment in any case is against society? 20

b. do you find it is necessary to convict the accused both under section 304-B & section 498-A of penal code?  Refer to recent cases. 20

c. Mr.A a chronic heart patient was drawn into political debate & in the course of arguments his advicesari looked at him fiercely & said that “people like him should be hit till they are dead”. Hearing his A suffers a heart attack & dies on the spot. Discuss the liability of his adversary . argue for the state also. 10 .

d. A a minor girl leaves her parents house because of ill treatment & lives with B, her friend. Can he (B) be prosecuted for kidnapping? 10


4.a. the editor of weekly published a series of articles directed against the business of plaintiff alleging how the wealth of the vast empire was built up by having recourse to the unlawful & questionable means involving tax-evasion , import-export rackets, foreign exchange violations & how the investigations into the operations of the organization were bogged down. In an action for defamation the defendant put up the defence of fair comment on the matter of public interest . the plaintiff brought the evidence to show that the defendant had to tender an apology to the plaintiff in an earlier defamation case & that the present publication was motivated by malice. Discuss the defence of fair comment in the light of the facts of the cases. 20

b. we must use our property so as not to cause discomfort to another’s use of property . yet a temporary discomfort is not actionable . explain the law. 20

c. discuss the liability of hospitals under the consumer protection act 1986, refer to decided cases also. 20


section b


5.a. on breach of contract only such loss can be recovered as was in the contemplation of both the parties at the time of entering into the contract. Discuss . 15 mks.

b. the vary object of taking a surety is defeated, if the creditor is required to postpone his remedies against the surety. Explain the liability of the surety. 15

c. what do you understand by promissory note? Discuss . 15

d. mere cessation of trading does not result in dissolution of a partnership. Rights & liabilities need to be settled between the partners. Explain. 15


6.a. the competition act is designed to prevent monopolies & unfair trade practices against smaller competitors & consuming public . elucidate. 30

b. public interest litigation has been a significant tool in protecting the environment . discuss with the help of cases. 30.


7.a. an impartial & independent conciliator assist the parties in resolving their disputes amicably. Discuss the provisions of law relating to conciliation. 30.

b. distinguish between ‘foreign award’ & conventional award. Discuss the procedure for enforcement of foreign award with the help of case law. 30


8.a. examine the legal recognition of ‘digital signature’ & explain the procedure for its registration under the information technology act. 30

b. the principle of “passing off” in an action has been extended to the use of ‘false trade description’ . explain the conditions for a successful passing off action & the defences available to the opposite party. 30

zoology mains 2010 paper 1 & 2

Posted: November 14, 2010 in 2010_mains_papers

zoology mains 2010 paper 1


  1. write concise accounts of any 3 in about 200 words each. 20×3 = 60
  1. what are coral reefs? Enlist their geographical distribution , types & threats been faced by them.
  2. Draw well labeled diagrams only of male urinogenital system of labeo & frog.
  3. Enlist & draw diagrams of various larval forms of echinoderms & describe their evolutionary significance.
  4. Draw a well labeled diagram of the internal ear of rabbit. Comment upon the function of each part.

2 . answer any 2 of the following. 30×2 = 60

  1. enumerate various stages of sexual reproduction in sycon. Provide diagrammatic representation in support to your answer.
  2. What are the various hosts in which wuchereria bancrofti complete its life cycle? Describe various stages of its life cycle along with the diagram.
  3. Explain the structure & functions of respiratory organ of lamellidens branchiata.


3.a. what is retrogressive metamorphosis? Provide an illustrated account of reproduction in herdmania.  30

b. draw a well labeled diagram of respiratory system of scoliodon & explain the mechanism of respiration. 30


4.a. give an account on dentition in mammals. 30

b. enlist any 5 hard derivatives of vertebrate integumentary system. Give an account on various types of horns & antlers in mammals giving examples & diagrams. 30


section b

5 write in brief any 3 of following in 200 words each. 20×3 = 60

a. mention the various steps of sulphur biogeochemical cycle & draw a well labeled diagram . discuss its significance.

b. what is meant by sign-stimulus? Mention various types of sign-stimulus & discuss with examples .

c. what is lac culture? What are the uses of lac? Explain the methodology employed in lac culture. Discuss its present scenario in India.

d. what is EM? Mention different types of EM. Describe the structure & function of TEM. Mention its application in biology.


6.a. define sustainable development. Discuss the principle of sustainable development in the conservation of natural resources. 20

b. give a brief account of social organizations & determination of ‘castes’ in termites. 20

c. write the clinical manifestations, mode of infections , diagnose & treatment of tuberculosis. 20


7.a. what is student T test? Explain the application with example. 30

b. enlist 5 mammalian wildlife endangered species of India. Discuss the present scenario of conservation methods employed for gir lion. 30


8.a. what is imprinting? Discuss salient features & significance of this phenomenon in animals. 30

b. comment upon ‘sexual-conflicts’ in animals. 30


zoology mains 2010 paper 2

1. answer any 4 in 150 words . 15×4 =60

a.     distinguish between allopatric & sympatric speciation.

b.     Explain the functional difference between shine-dalgarno sequence & pribnow sequence.

c.      Comment on phenylketonuria as a genetic disorder.

d.     Distinguish between classical taxonomy & molecular taxonomy.

e.     Distinguish between Darwinism & neo-Darwinism.


2.  a. explain the structure of the basic level of organization of eukaryotic genetic material. Name 2 higher level organization. 20

b. which organelle is well developed in a secretory cell? Describe the structure to justify its function. 20

c. list the components of prokaryotic translation initiation complex. Explain how it is assembled to initiate translation. 20


3.a. RNA processing is a characteristic of eukaryotes only & not of prokaryotes. Explain this with reference to gene organization. 20

b. enunciate the mendelian laws of inheritance. Would Mendel’s laws hold good under all conditions? Justify your contention. 20

c. what are suicide bags of cells? Briefly describe their structure & function. 20


4.a. what are Darwin finches? Explain their significance in evolution. 20

b. critically comment on the justification of biodiversities studies. 20

c. write a short note on Australopithecus. 20


section b .

5. answer any 4 in 150 words . 15×4 =60

a. cyclic-AMP as a second messenger

b. types & functions of mammalian salivary glands

c. interaction that stabilize the secondary & territory structure of proteins.

d. excitatory & inhibitory neurotransmitters.

e. grey crescent


6.a. what are high energy compounds? Substantiate their role in biological systems. 20

b. classify L-amino acids on their structural basis. What are the biochemical importance of sulphur containing amino acids? 20

c. give a schematic representation of thyroxin biosynthesis. 20


7.a. describe briefly Mitchell’s chemi-osmotic hypothesis for ATP synthesis. 20

b. write briefly on control & regulation of renal excretion with reference to mammals. 20

c. write a note on female sexual cycles. 20


8.a. explain the changes undergone by sperm in th female reproductive tracts of mammals. 20

b. define teratogenesis & write a note on “thalidomide syndrome”. 20

c. write a note on homeotic genes in control of early development. 20