governors & viceroys

Posted: September 18, 2010 in India

1.        Robert clive (1757-60) :

  • Governor of Bengal from 1757-60 & again from 1765-67
  • Started dual government in Bengal in 1765
  • He forbade the servants of company from indulging in private trade & made payment of internal duties obligatory
  • Bengal white mutiny by white bridges at Allahabad & monghyr, they were arrested & tried.

2.        Warren Hastings 1772-85

  • Introduced quinquennial settlement of land revenue in 1772 farming out lands to the highest bidder, later on he reversed to annual settlement 1777 on the basis of open auction to the highest bidder.
  • Made appointments of collections & other revenue officials
  • Codified hindu & muslims laws.
  • Trial of nand kumar & his judicial murder in 1775
  • Foundation of Asiatic society of Bengal with the help of William jones in 1784
  • Associated with the chait singh (banaras raj) affairs, 1778
  • After his return to England in 1785, impeachment proceedings were initiated against him in the house of lords but after a long trial of 7 years he was eventually acquitted.
  • Dual government was abolished by him in1772
  • In 1776, manu’s law was translated into English-code of gentoo laws.
  • In 1791, William jones & coldbrook prepared digest of hindu laws.
  • In 1772,  created a Diwani & Faujdari adalat.
  • The regulation act 1773 appointed him the first governor general along with four councilors.
  • First anglo – maratha war took place.
  • Wilkins translated gita & hitopadesa in English.
  • In 1780, james August hickey started a weekly paper called Bengal gazette or Calcutta general advertiser.
  • Syed ghulam hussain wrote siyar – ul – mutqherin.

3.        lord Cornwallis 1786 – 93

  • in 1791 sanskrit college , benaras, founded by jonathan Duncan.
  • The permanent settlement introduced in 1793.
  • Police system was introduced.
  • Districts faujdari adalats presided over by Indian judges were abolished.
  • In their place 4 circuit courts were established presided by European covenanted servants.
  • Cornwallis code was introduced.
  • The collected was divested of judicial & magisterial powers.
  • He was the head of the revenue administration.

4.        lord Wellesley 1793 – 98

  • described himself as Bengal tiger.
  • Created the madras presidency after the annexation of the kingdom of tanjore & carnatic.
  • Introduced the system of subsidiary alliance.
  • The states that signed the alliance were Hyderabad in 1798 followed by mysore, tanjore, awadh, peshwa, sindhia, jodhpur, jaipur, mecheri, bundi, bharathpur , berar.
  • Signed treaty of bassy with the peshwa & fought second anglo-maratha war.
  • Lord lake captured delhi & agra.
  • Mughal’s emperor was put under company’s protection.
  • Raja ram mohan roy wrote the tuhfat – ul – muwahhiddin.

5.        lord minto 1807 – 13

  • signed treaty of amritsar in 1809 between ranjit singh & the English.
  • Sent in 1808 mission of malcom to Persia & that of eliphinston to Kabul.

6.        lord hastings 1813 – 23

  • he was made marquess of hastings due to his success in the gorkha war of the anglo Nepalese war.
  • Signed treaty of sangauli in 1816 after defeting gorkha leader amar singh.
  • Abolished peshwaship & annexed his territories in the Bombay presidency after 3rd anglo-maratha war 1818.
  • Introduction of royatwari settlement in madras presidency by governor Thomas munro 1820
  • Mahalwari system of land revenue was made in north-west province by james Thomson.

7.        lord Amherst 1823 – 28

  • received by the mughal emperor akbar II on terms of equality in 1827.
  • Signed treaty of yandabo in 1826 with lower burma/pegu by which british merchants were allowed to settle in southern coast of burma & Rangoon.

8.        lord William bentick 1828 – 35

  • 1st governor general of India by government of India act 1833
  • Known as benevolent governor general
  • Banned practice of sati in 1829, suppressed thugi in 1830 (military operation led by William sleeman).
  • Banned female infanticide.
  • Created the province of agra in 1834
  • English was to be court language in higher courts but Persian continued in lower courts.
  • The regulation of 1833 on land revenue settlement by mertins bird(called as father of land revenue settlement in the north)
  • Use of field maps & field registers were prescribed for the 1st time.
  • Inquiry into titles of inam lands.
  • In 1830, annexation of cachar took place.
  • In 1831, rebellion of mysore took place.
  • 1831, rebellion of titu mir & kola took place.
  • Abolished provincial circuit courts.
  • A separate sardar diwani adalat was set up in Allahabad & sadar nizamat adalat in delhi.
  • Education reforms.
  • Appointed macaulay as president of committee of public instruction.

9.        sir charles Metcalfe 1835 – 36

  • abolished restriction on press.
  • He was called ‘liberator of press’.

10.      lord Auckland 1836 – 42

  • tripartite treaty was signed between the company, ranjit singh & shah shuja.
  • 1st afghan war started.
  • Mandavi state was annexed.

11.      lord ellenborough 1842 – 44

  • annexation of sind to british empire 1843
  • charles naiper was replaced by major outram as the resident in sind.
  • Slavery abolished.

12.      lord Dalhousie 1849 – 56

  • introduced policy of ‘doctrine of lapse’/’law of escheat’.
  • Introduced wood’s dispatch known as magna carta of English education.
  • In India prepared by charles wood , the president of the board of control in 1854.
  • It recommended establishment of anglo – vernacular schools in district, government colleges in important towns & universities.
  • Introduction of vernacular language as medium of instruction.
  • Boosted up the development of railways – laid the 1st railway line in 1853 from Bombay to thane & 2nd from Calcutta to raniganj.
  • Gave great impetus to post & telegraph.
  • 1st telegraph lines were laid from Calcutta to agra.
  • Organized separate public works department by diverting the military board of this power.
  • Shimla was made summer capital & army headquarter.
  • Hindi remarriage act was passed in 1856.
  • Annexed awadh in 1856 on excuse of misgovernment when nawab wajid ali shah refused to abdicate.
  • 1853 recruitment of the covenanted civil service by competitive examination.
  • A post office act was passed in 1854
  • Postage stamp was issued for the 1st time.
  • 1855 the santhal uprising took place.
  • Abolition of the title of nawab of carnatic.

13.      lord canning 1856 – 62

  • revolt of 1857
  • queen’s victoria’s proclamation & passing of the Indian act of 1858
  • doctrine of lapse started by lord Dalhousie was withdrawn in 1859
  • foundation of the universities of Calcutta, Bombay, madras in 1857
  • indigo revolt in Bengal in 1859-60
  • bahadur shah was sent to Rangoon
  • enactment of Indian penal code
  • 1861 indian council act
  • Enactment of code of criminal procedure.

14.      lord elgin 1862 – 63

  • suppressed the wahabi movement.

15.      sir john Lawrence 1864 – 69

  • famine commission was constituted
  • followed a policy of rigid non-interference in Afghanistan called policy of masterly inactivity.
  • Set up high courts in Calcutta, Bombay, madras 1865

16.      lord mayo 1869 – 72

  • wahabi & kuka movement was active.
  • Mayo was murdered

17.      lord lytton 1876 – 80

  • passing of the royal title act of 1876, assumption of the title empress on India (Qaiser – I – hind) by queen Victoria.
  • Holding delhi durbar in 1877
  • Passing of arms act of 1878
  • Lowering of the maximum age from 21 to 19 years for civil service examination, an attempt to prevent Indians from entering civil services.
  • Appointment of 1st famine commission under sir Richard stratchy.
  • Policy of masterly inactivity towards Afghanistan was replaced by forward policy
  • Started statutory civil services.
  • 2nd anglo-afghan war in 1878
  • 1879, treaty of gandamak
  • The famine of 1876-78.

18.      lord ripon 1880 – 84

  • passing of the 1st factory act in 1881 for the welfare of child labor
  • repeal of vernacular press act in 1882
  • foundation of local self-government 1882
  • passing of local self-government acts in various provinces during period 1883-84
  • holding of 1st decennial & regular census in 1881 which put the total population at 254 million.
  • Appointment of an education commission under sir William hunter in 1882
  • Liberty bill controversy, 1883-84 relating to passing of a bill framed by the law member of the viceroy’s council sir c.p. liberty which abolished judicial disqualification based on race.
  • Famine code of 1883
  • Rendition of mysore

19.      lord duferin 1884 – 88

  • foundation of Indian national congress
  • 3rd anglo-burmese war
  • 1886, upper burma was annexed
  • Aitchison committee
  • Commented on congress being a microscopic minority.

20.      lord Lansdowne 1888 – 94

  • passed the age of consent act in 1891 which forbade marriage of girl below 12
  • 1891, 2nd factory act was passed
  • 1892, Indian council act was passed
  • 1893, dufand mission was sent to jail

21.      lord curzon 1899 – 1905

  • creation of new province called north west frontier province
  • appointment of police commission under sir Andrew frazer to inquire into the police administration in 1902-03
  • recommended increment in salaries, creation of department of criminal intelligence
  • appointment of universities commission in 1902 under sir Thomas releigh, passing of Indian universities act 1904
  • creating new department of commerce & industry
  • passing of ancient monuments protection act in 1904 for preservation of India’s cultural heritage.
  • Appointed mac donnell commission of famine in 1900.
  • Appointment of moncrieff commission on irrigation in 1902
  • Partition of Bengal

22.      lord minto II 1905 – 10

  • s.p. sinha was appointed a member of governor general’s council act of 1909
  • 1906, arundale committee on political reforms submitted its reports.

23.      lord hardinge 1910 – 16

  • coronation durbar in 1911 at delhi in honor of george V
  • separate state of bihar & orissa was created in 1911
  • bomb was thron as he was entering delhi at chandni chowk
  • capital shifted to delhi in 1911
  • 1912, islington committee on civil services.
  • Kamagata maru incident
  • BHU was founded
  • 1916, saddler committee on universities was appointed
  • Human sacrifice practiced by khonds was abolished
  • Tilak founded home rule league

24.      lord Chelmsford 1916 – 21

  • foundation of women’s university at Poona
  • hunter commission on Punjab wrongs
  • chamber of princes established in 1921
  • home rule league formed by annie bezant
  • Rowlett committee submits its report
  • 3rd afghan war started
  • Aligarh muslim university founded in 1920

25.      lord reading 1921 – 26

  • foundation of rashtriya swajam sevak sangh by k.b. hedgewar at nagpur in 1925
  • beginning of Indianisation of the officer’s cadre of the Indian army
  • railway budget was separated from central budget in 1921
  • skeen committee/Indian sandhust committee on army reforms was appointed in 1925. submitted its report in 1926
  • lee commission on public services appointed in 1924, report submitted in 1924
  • Hilton young committee on currency 1926
  • Vishwa bharti university started by rabindranath tagore
  • Train robbery at kakori

26.      lord Irwin 1926 – 31

  • popularly known as Christian viceroy
  • appointment of the Indian states commission under Harcourt butler 1927.
  • Deepavali declaration 1929 that India would be granted dominion status in due course
  • Royal commission on Indian labor was appointed in 1929, gave its report in 1931
  • Sarda act was passed in 1929
  • Marriage for girls below 14 years & boys below 18 years of age was prohibited
  • Indian school of mines opened in dhanbad
  • Royal commission on agriculture constituted in 1927
  • Simon commission arrives in Bombay
  • Meerut conspiracy case
  • Jinnah formulates 14 points after Nehru report
  • Bhaghat singh & batukeshwar dutt drop bombs in the legislative assembly
  • Gandhi starts his dandi march
  • Chittagong armoury field
  • 1st round table conference without congress takes place
  • Gandhi – Irwin pact
  • Gandhi leaves for London to participate in 2nd round table conference

27.      lord Wellington 1931 – 36

  • communal award in 1932
  • 3rd round table conference in 1932
  • White paper on political reforms in India was published in 1933
  • Burma & aden were separated from the british empire in 1935
  • Orissa, bihar, sind were made new states

28.      lord linglithgow 1936 – 43

  • august offer by viceroy in which he declared the dominion status of the ultimate goal of British policy in India
  • haripur session 1939 congress declared poorna swaraj ideal to cover native states & british India
  • 1940, individual civil disobedience movement
  • 1942, Cripps mission came
  • C. rajgopalachari formula proposed
  • Congress starts quit India movement

29.      lord wavell 1943 – 47

  • wavell plan, shimla conference congress represented by maulana azad
  • rin mutiny 1946
  • interim government was formed September 2, 1946
  • PM of british clement atlee announced independence of India by june 1948 (February 20 1947)
  • Cabinet mission 1946
  • August 16 1946 muslim league begins ‘direct action day’

30.      lord mountbatten 1947 – 48

  • earlier proposed plan i.e. total dismemberment of the Indian territory but soon left the ideas
  • made it clear to the princely states that they shall not be granted separate independence , they will have to join either India / Pakistan.
  • His plan to make India free on august 15 1947 is also known as june 3rd plan.
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