history 2010 ias mains syllabus

Posted: June 29, 2010 in syllabus_2010
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1.         Sources:

Archaeological sources:

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments

Literary sources:

Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2.         Pre-history and Proto-history:

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3.         Indus Valley Civilization:

Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4.         Megalithic Cultures:

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5.         Aryans and Vedic Period:

Expansions of Aryans in India.

Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6.         Period of Mahajanapadas:

Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.

Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.

7.         Mauryan Empire:

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art,  architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.

8          Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9.         Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10.       Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11.       Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12.       Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13.       Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

–     Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs

–         The Cholas: administration, village economy and society

–         “Indian Feudalism”

–     Agrarian economy and urban settlements

–     Trade and commerce

–     Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order

–         Condition of women

–         Indian science and technology

14.       Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

–     Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita,    Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa

–     Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism

–     Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India

–     Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting

15.       The Thirteenth Century:

–     Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success

–     Economic, social and cultural consequences

–     Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans

–     Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban

16.       The Fourteenth Century:

–     “The Khalji Revolution”

–     Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures

–     Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq

–     Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account

17.       Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

–     Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement

–     Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture

–     Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce

18.       The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:

–     Rise of Provincial Dynasties:  Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat,   Malwa, Bahmanids

–     The Vijayanagra Empire

–     Lodis

–     Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun

–     The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration

–     Portuguese Colonial enterprise

–     Bhakti and Sufi Movements

19.       The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:

–     Regional cultural specificities

–     Literary traditions

–     Provincial architecture

–     Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20.       Akbar:

–     Conquests and consolidation of the Empire

–     Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems

–     Rajput policy

–     Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy

–     Court patronage of art and technology

21.       Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

–     Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb

–     The Empire and the Zamindars

–     Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb

–     Nature of the Mughal State

–     Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts

–     The Ahom Kingdom

–     Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22.       Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:

–     Population, agricultural production, craft production

–     Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution

–     Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems

–     Condition of peasants, condition of women

–     Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23.       Culture in the Mughal Empire:

–     Persian histories and other literature

–     Hindi and other religious literature

–     Mughal architecture

–     Mughal painting

–     Provincial architecture and painting

–     Classical music

–     Science and technology

24.       The Eighteenth Century:

–     Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire

–     The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh

–     Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas

–     The Maratha fiscal and financial system

–     Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761

–     State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest


1.         European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars;         Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2.         British Expansion in India:

Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3.         Early Structure of the British Raj:

The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4.         Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European  business enterprise and its limitations.

5.         Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6.         Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7.         Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences;  The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant  Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935

11. Other strands in the National Movement

The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras Presidency, Outside India.

The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post – colonial India; Progress of science.

16.       Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i)            Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau

(ii)            Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies

(iii)            Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17.       Origins of Modern Politics:

(i)            European States System.

(ii)            American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii)            French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv)            American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v)            British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18.          Industrialization:
(i)   English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society

(ii)   Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
(iii)  Industrialization and Globalization.
19. Nation-State System:

(i)    Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
(ii)   Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
(iii)  Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the world.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism:

(i)   South and South-East Asia

(ii)   Latin America and South Africa

(iii)  Australia

(iv)  Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:

(i)   19th Century European revolutions
(ii)   The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
(iii)   Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
(iv)  The Chinese Revolution of 1949

22.       World Wars:
(i)   1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
(ii)   World War I: Causes and consequences
(iii)  World War II: Causes and consequence

23. The World after World War II:

(i)   Emergence of two power blocs
(ii)  Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule:
(i)    Latin America-Bolivar
(ii)   Arab World-Egypt
(iii)  Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
(iv)  South-East Asia-Vietnam

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
(i)    Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa

26.       Unification of Europe:

(i)   Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
(ii)  Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
(i)    Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet Union,           1985-1991
(ii)   Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
(iii)  End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone


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